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Friday, May 15, 2020

波士頓約每40人有1人為無症狀新冠患者

波士頓市長馬丁華殊(Marty Walsh)。
(Boston Orange編譯)波士頓市約有10%市民已感染過新型冠狀病毒,有了抗體,大約每40人中就有1人是無症狀患者。波士頓市長馬丁華殊(Marty Walsh) (15)日公佈和麻省總醫院合作的病毒抗體檢測結果,直言想要重新開放,得十分謹慎,小心。
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馬丁華殊在疫情匯報中表示,波士頓市 和洛杉磯,底特律,邁阿密,以及紐奧良一起,獲選為洛克斐勒基金會檢測解決方案集團(Rockefeller Foundation’s Testing Solutions Group)的創辦成員,將分享最佳做法,並獲取擴展檢測的技術援助。
波士頓市長馬丁華殊今日和麻省總醫院,以及波士頓公共衛生局一起宣佈為評估全市居民感染新型冠狀病毒(COVID-19)程度所做的檢測研究,已有結果,接受檢測者約9.9%抗體檢測呈陽性,2.6%的無症狀個人COVID-19病毒檢測呈陽性。
換言之,這項研究顯示,波士頓每10名居民中就有1人身體內已有COVID-19病毒抗體,每40名無症狀個人中,就有1人病毒檢測呈陽性,很可能傳染給別人。
馬丁華殊表示,波市府從檢測結果得出兩項初步結論,一是波市府在大流行中及早行動,的確在減緩病毒傳播上起了作用, 二是大部分居民還未暴露於病毒前。這也意味著重新開放應採取循序漸進做法,包括為每一行業根據檢測情況,以及醫院指標來訂定清楚的健康標準及安全指導原則。
             波市府為做這項檢測研究,發出5000份參加檢測邀請,給住在東波士頓,羅森岱爾,以及0212102125這兩個區域號碼內的多徹斯特居民,其中55%的受邀者是有色人種。大約有1000人有興趣參加,有786人符合要求,其中750人註冊加入研究,並做了抗體及病毒檢測。有症狀及早前檢測呈陽性反應者不符合參加研究資格。
             接受測試的這750人,其人口地理資料為:
             中位年齡為42.4歲,61.6%為女性,38.3%為男性。36.8%是羅森岱爾居民,25.1%住在東波士頓,23.2%來自多徹斯特的02125郵遞區號,14.9%來自02121郵遞區號。62%為白人,18.7%為黑人,非洲裔美人,12%為拉丁/西班牙裔,2.3%為亞裔太平洋島民,0,13%為美國印地安人,阿拉斯加土著,1,6%不詳。
             波士頓市現在已有20個病毒檢測站。波市府和麻省總醫院合作的檢測,是在東波士頓,羅森岱爾,以及多徹斯特的3個駕車經過檢測站辦理的,抗體檢測用鼻拭子做,病毒檢測用針刺指頭取血樣做。
             波士頓市在430日至57日間,全市的檢測量增加了30%,截至上週末已有36,072名市民做過檢測。
             波士頓市也已花了124萬元來擴大新型冠狀病毒的19個檢測站工作,並在17個社區健康中心。執行文化上適合的外展及教育。

             515日的波士頓市新型冠狀病毒疫情數據為,確診11,395人,死亡551人,已痊癒4,089人。(更新版)

MAYOR WALSH, MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL ANNOUNCE RESULTS OF ANTIBODY AND COVID-19 TESTING FOR BOSTON RESIDENTS 
BOSTON - Friday, May 15, 2020 - Mayor Martin J. Walsh, together with Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC), today announced the study to evaluate community exposure to COVID-19 through a representative sampling of asymptomatic Boston residents resulted in 9.9% testing positive for antibodies and 2.6% of currently asymptomatic individuals testing positive for COVID-19. In conclusion, approximately 1 in 10 residents in this study have developed antibodies and approximately 1 in 40 currently asymptomatic individuals are positive for COVID-19 and potentially infectious. 

"We can draw two preliminary conclusions from the results of this study," said Mayor Walsh. "First, that the actions we took early on in this pandemic made a real difference in slowing the spread and, second, that the majority of our population still have not been exposed to the virus. This underscores what we already know, that we have to move cautiously and stay focused on what got us this far. This can be done by a gradual, phased-in approach to reopening that includes clear health criteria and safety guidelines for each industry and depends on testing and hospital metrics reaching certain benchmarks, and continuing to move in the right direction." 

More than 5,000 residents living in East Boston, Roslindale or within the boundaries of zip codes 02121 and 02125 in Dorchester were invited to voluntarily participate in the study, with total outreach representing more than 55% people of color. Approximately 1,000 residents expressed interest in participating and 786 residents were deemed eligible. Of those, 750 residents enrolled in the study and received the required testing. Residents with symptoms or a previously positive COVID-19 test were disqualified from the study.

Baseline demographics of the 750 participants:
  • Median age is 42.4 years old
  • 61.6% are female, 38.3% male
  • 36.8% are from Roslindale, 25.1% are from East Boston, 23.2% are from 02125 in Dorchester and 14.9% are from 02121 in Dorchester
  • 62% are white, 18.7% are Black/African-American, 12% are Latinx/Hispanic, 2.3% are Asian/Pacific Islander and .13% are American Indian/Alaska Native. 1.6% preferred not to say and 1.6% are unknown. There were no significant differences in COVID-19 or antibody rates by race or ethnicity in this sample.
Prevalence of COVID-19 positivity in currently asymptomatic individuals ranged from 1.1% to 4.6%, while antibody positivity ranged from 6.3% to 13.3% by zip code.
  • East Boston: 1.1% tested positive for COVID-19, 13.3% tested positive for antibodies
  • Roslindale: 2.2% tested positive for COVID-19, 7.6% tested positive for antibodies
  • 02121 in Dorchester: 2.7% tested positive for COVID-19, 6.3% tested positive for antibodies
  • 02125 in Dorchester: 4.6% tested positive for COVID-19, 12.1% tested positive for antibodies
"Making sound decisions about safely reopening requires that we understand how extensively the virus has already spread in our community," said Peter L. Slavin, MD, president of Massachusetts General Hospital. "The testing that the teams from Boston and the MGH conducted shows that approximately 90 percent of the city's residents have not yet been exposed to the virus. We also know that COVID-19 will be with us for a while. It is vital therefore that we be thoughtful and careful about reopening, and that we continue to take actions - wearing masks, physical distancing, working from home when possible, limiting gatherings - that can prevent another surge of the disease."

Testing was conducted at three drive through testing sites in East Boston, Roslindale and Dorchester. Testing for COVID-19 virus is done by means of a swab of the nose and determines if you have the infection. Antibody testing is done by means of blood drawn through a finger prick and detects whether your blood has antibodies that are present when the body is responding to an infection, like COVID-19. Any resident who tested positive for the COVID-19 virus or the COVID-19 antibodies was provided with clear guidance and information on how to care for themselves and those around them.

This announcement builds on Mayor Walsh's commitment to increase access to testing for Boston residents, which will allow for better understanding of the spread and inform a path to recovery. Boston is currently offering testing in over 20 locations, including hospitals and community health centers. During April 30 and May 7 alone, Boston had a 30 percent increase in the amount of testing happening citywide. By the end of last week a total of 36,072 tests had been conducted.

On Monday, Mayor Walsh announced that the City's first round of universal testing for all unhoused individuals in Boston was completed. Over 2,200 homeless individuals were tested, with 743 testing positive for a 32% infection rate. In addition, Mayor Walsh is working on universal testing at city substance use residential programs.

Through the Boston Resiliency Fund, the City has dedicated $1.24 million to expand COVID-19 testing and conduct culturally appropriate outreach and education at 17 community health centers in Boston neighborhoods. A full map of testing sites is available here. The map includes contact information for the testing site and it is updated as new sites come online. Residents who are sick and want to be tested should call ahead to be pre-screened and schedule an appointment. Residents will not be charged for testing and residents will not be asked about immigration status. 

In addition, the City of Boston has made available weekly data on testing at the neighborhood level, with new reports including the number of people tested, and positive testing rates for each neighborhood. The latest data was shared on Thursday, May 7 and can be found here

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