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Saturday, July 11, 2020

麻州推出8個免費檢測站 所有居民都可做檢測

麻州州長查理貝克(Charlie Baker)宣佈8個免費檢測地點。
(州長辦公室提供)
(Boston Orange 周菊子整理報導)710日起至814日,任何麻州居民都可以到州內8個地點,免費做新型冠狀病毒(COVID-19)檢測。
麻州州長查理貝克(Charlie Baker)8日時宣佈了制止擴散(Stop the Spread”計畫,在雀喜(Chelsea),艾佛瑞(Everett),秋河(Fall River),羅倫斯(Lawrence),羅爾(Lowell),林市(Lynn),馬伯洛夫(Marlborough),以及新貝福(New Bedford)8個城市,提供免費檢測,以確保民眾做檢測時不需擔心可能會有相關花費。查理貝克還鼓勵無症狀人士也利用這免費檢測。
州長辦公室表示,前述8個市區,人口僅佔麻州的9%,但在過去2週以來的麻州檢測陽性人口中卻佔了27%。整個麻州的檢測陽性比率約為2%,但前述8個市區卻高達8%。儘管新型冠狀病毒疫情仍然持續,這些城市的檢測比率,卻從4月底以後下降了39%
根據美國人口統計數據,這8個城市中,有7個是麻州人均收入最低城市之一。其中的馬伯洛夫雖然不是,但位於米斗塞郡(Middlesex)的這城市工人階級人口眾多,巴西移民正不斷增長。
在那些社區的少數族裔中,檢測陽性的比率更高。新貝福市健康主任Damon Chaplin上週告訴議員,該市人口95,000,新型冠狀病毒確診個案2,162宗,死亡人數111。拉丁裔僅佔該市人口4分之一,卻佔COVID-19確診病例的49%。黑人佔該市人口6%COVID-19確診病例卻佔9%
Damon Chaplin認為,人們需要更多低價或免費做檢測的途徑與選擇,因為很多人都怕去做了檢測後,會在信箱中收到帳單。他希望任何需要,想要做檢測的人都可以得到免費檢測。
麻州州長查理貝克認為全民檢測是控制擴散的錯誤作法,但是他呼籲全民承諾採取諸如社交隔離,戴口罩,如果需要的話就做檢測等措施來制止擴散。
目前麻州政府並未在麻州西部設立免費檢測站。查理貝克在回應提問時表示,麻州西部社區做檢測人數似乎比其他地區高,但感染COVID-19的比率卻低,所以目前暫無在麻州西部設免費檢測站的計畫,如果有狀況出現,會再調整。
查詢免費檢測地點,可上網mass.gov/stopthespread
麻州政府也提醒民眾,如果檢測結果呈陽性,當社區追蹤合作(Community Tracing Collaborative)人員或地方衛生局打電話給他們時,請務必接聽。任何需要地方做安全隔離者,可致電617-367-5150,以獲取免費的隔離復原地點。(7月11日發表中文版)

Baker-Polito Administration Launches Targeted Free COVID-19 Testing Sites
Testing will be available in eight communities from July 10 to August 14

BOSTON – Today, the Baker-Polito Administration announced the launch of free COVID-19 testing sites in eight communities from July 10 to August 14 to help stop the spread of COVID-19.

This “Stop the Spread” initiative is a data-driven effort to reduce the prevalence of COVID-19 in communities that are above the state average in total cases and positive test rate, and have experienced a decline in testing levels since April. The initiative is being launched in Chelsea, Everett, Fall River, Lawrence, Lowell, Lynn, Marlborough, and New Bedford. Residents of these communities are urged to take advantage of the availability of these new testing sites, even if they are asymptomatic. While these sites are being launched in these communities, they are open to all residents of the Commonwealth.

“While the Commonwealth has made progress on reducing the overall positive test rate, there are still communities where the number of positive tests is above the average of the rest of the state,” said Governor Charlie Baker. “Focusing our efforts to increase testing in these communities will help identify new cases and stop the spread. Residents of these communities, even those who are asymptomatic, are urged to take advantage of these new sites.”

“This initiative will provide widespread testing in easy to access community locations,” said Lt. Governor Karyn Polito. “If you live in these communities, please get tested to protect your family, loved ones and neighbors from COVID-19.”

“Increased testing within these communities will help to identify new cases of COVID-19 and break the chains of community transmission,” said COVID-19 Command Center Director & Health and Human Services Secretary Marylou Sudders. “As we move into the summer, we will continue to closely monitor positivity and testing rates across the Commonwealth.”

The population of the cities in which the free testing will be conducted – Chelsea, Everett, Fall River, Lawrence, Lowell, Lynn, Marlborough, and New Bedford – make up approximately 9% of the Commonwealth’s population, but have seen 27% of the Commonwealth’s positive tests in the last two weeks.

The statewide positive test rate over the past two weeks is approximately 2%, but in these eight communities, 8% of tests have been positive.

Despite the continued elevated spread in these communities, total testing in these communities has declined 39% since the end of April, and the total cases as a percentage of population for these communities is nearly double the state average.

Residents may visit mass.gov/stopthespread to find testing locations.

Residents are reminded that if they test positive for COVID-19, please answer the call when they are contacted by the Community Tracing Collaborative or their local board of health. Also, any individual who needs a safe place to isolate can call (617) 367-5150 to access an isolation and recovery site at no cost.  (July 8th)

Friday, July 10, 2020

今年麻州選舉 任何人都可郵寄投票


               (Boston Orange 周菊子整理報導)今年的91日初選和113日大選,麻州選民可以郵寄投票了。麻州州長查理貝克(Charlie Baker)簽署通過,麻州州務卿威廉蓋文(William Galvin)預定下週的715日之前,把郵寄選票申請表,寄給全州450萬名已登記選民。
               這郵寄投票新法還將讓麻州有史以來第一次,在初選之前,有個提早投票期,從822日起至828日止。大選的提早投票期,則從1017日起至1030日止。
               麻州原本就有郵寄投票這選項,但以前只有人不在州內,身體殘障,或是因為宗教信仰等因素,在投票當日不能親自到投票站投票者,可以選擇郵寄投票。今年因為新型冠狀病毒大流行,議員們為確保人民可以選擇以感染新型冠狀病毒機會最小的方式投票,提案討論通過後,由州長簽署成法。線在選民不需要任何理由,都可以郵寄投票了。
               在麻州,這還是第一次,所有選民無論是誰,都可以郵寄投票了。
               麻州州務卿辦公室在寄出這郵件選票申請表之後,9月還得為大選再寄一次。
               參眾兩會各通過自己版本的郵寄投票法案後,由6名議員組成的委員會上周達成協議。眾議會以1571票通過,只有轄區在Dracut的民主黨籍眾議員Colleen Garry投了反對票。參議會則無異議通過。
               CNN在報導中指出,麻州通過新法後,意味著麻州加入密西根州,內華達州,加州,新罕布夏州,以及威斯康辛州的行列,在新型冠狀病毒大流行期間,讓人民投票更方便。
           2016年及2018年,美國約有25%的選民以郵寄投票,那包括有限的幾州完全以郵寄方式,或傳統的缺席投票方式辦理選舉。

波士頓市長宣佈 公屋居民逼遷暫緩令延至2020年底

波士頓市長馬丁華殊(Marty J. Walsh)。

               (Boston Orange)波士頓市長馬丁華殊(Marty J Walsh)和波士頓住宅局今(10)日宣佈,公屋居民的非必要逼遷(nonessential evictions)暫緩令,將展延到今年年底。
                   除了和犯罪活動有關,在保護波士頓公屋居民及職員上被認為是必要的個案之外,所有逼遷行動都暫停。
                 馬丁華殊表示,現在是非常時期,大家需要團結一致,以確保波士頓市最容易受傷害的居民也能在他們稱之為家的城市生活,工作。公屋社區是波士頓市重要且不可取代的一部分,波市府希望他們在這困難時期,得到支持。
                  波士頓房屋局是波士頓市內第一個在3月份執行暫緩非必要逼遷行動的機構。展延暫緩逼遷令將可保護在這新型冠狀病毒的公共衛生緊急時期面對經濟困難的公屋居民。
            大都會區域計畫會(The Metropolitan Area Planning Council)估計,波士頓市約有18,000戶人家在這場危機中,面對交租困難。
                上星期,最大的低收入住宅房東之一,Winn公司也宣佈,直到2020年年底為止,將持續暫緩逼遷由於新型冠狀病毒大流行而有財務困難的租戶。Winn公司在麻州包括波士頓市的22個市鎮中,以及幾乎所有的麻州門戶城市中,共擁有51個公寓社區,為大約6,500戶住家的12,240人提供住宅。
               在這場危機中,波士頓市府也經由租金救濟基金(Rental Relief Fund),發出了大約110萬元,幫助市內300戶無力付租人家。
                任何波士頓房屋局居民或持有憑證者,在病毒大流行期間若目前無力付租,應藉由簡訊,電郵,或印出來的信件通知住宅經理,或房東,並設置還款計畫。儘管現在有暫緩逼遷令,但那只是暫時的,居民仍然得執行合約義務,繳房租。

麻州收費公路上蓋大樓工程 40年後終於啟動


                   (Boston Orange)四十年前就已經有人想在麻州收費公路(Mass Turnpike)上蓋房子了,但這是有如波士頓發展史上的大白鯨(great white whale),一直只聞樓梯響,不見人下來。不過現在,來真的了。
                發展商Samuels & Associates週五取得融資,預定下週開始在麻州收費公路上興建,預計耗資7億元的辦公室及酒店大樓。
                    這是個巨型項目,未來三年將重塑破破爛爛的後灣區西邊,給從那方向進入波士頓市中心的駕駛人,一個全新入口。Samuels & Associates主席Steve Samuels表示,這棟大樓的興建,將需要在繁忙的八線道高速公路及鐵路上面,架起施工台。由於是在沒人預見的巨大經濟危機發生之際進行,所以在最後一刻還得忙於融資。但他們非常期待能展開工作。
               這棟大樓將架在波約斯頓街(Boylston)和紐百利街(Newbury)之間的麻州大道上,包括20層的辦公室大樓,其中靠波約斯頓街角落的大約一半,已租給網路汽車市場公司CarGurus,在紐百利街角落的那一半,將有13層樓高的M公民酒店。在這兩者之間會是有零售商店,改良人行道的半英畝公共廣場,以及進入海恩斯(Hynes)綠線地鐵站的新入口。進入麻州收費公路的西向上坡道,將從麻州大道上移到紐百利街去。
              這一建築計畫,早從2013年,麻州交通廳(MassDOT)把這名為12地段的土地交給Smauels公司時就開始了。這是在麻州大道和波約斯頓街之間,所謂麻州收費公路上空發展權(air rights)的三個地段之一。
             其他的那些發展計畫,其中一個在去年夏天破土動工前沒多久崩盤了,還在建築鉅子John Fish和資深發展商Steve Weiner之間,引發一場難堪的訴訟。其他的計畫蟄伏至今。
            還有幾個其他發展項目,從不幸的哥倫布中心到科普利廣場旁的摩天大樓,大都因為在麻州收費公路上空蓋房子所面對的工程與經濟挑戰,都失敗了,
             1980年代早期,科普利廣場啟用後,就沒有一項大型發展計畫成功過。
             Samuels表示,這一新的發展計劃將可把後灣區和芬衛(Fenway)區銜接得更好,該公司在過去10年間已大幅度的重建了波約斯頓街。這發展計畫也將改變行人及騎單車者在麻州大道上的感覺,把波士頓市內這塊大風吹襲,汽車穿梭的這一長條地段,變得更怡人。
             領軍發展商John Rosenthal周五表示,在這條路上的第二個大型上空權發展項目,計畫已久的芬衛中心大樓,也即將開始。他說,他們手上有錢來蓋這預計耗資10億元的發展項目,而且正在和麻州交通廳交涉,以期在未來數周內完成同類協議,也好讓兩項發展計畫能夠在封鎖麻州收費公路通車線道上,有更好的協調。他們希望八月可以開工。
             由於新型冠狀病毒的疫情影響,Samuels公司一直密切關注建築材料及勞工的成本價格,尤其是CarGurus已決定從原定租用275,000平方呎縮減為租用225,000平方呎。該公司目前仍有210,000平方呎的辦公室空間,以及50,000平方呎的零售店面可供出租。

RED SOX TO HOST BLUE JAYS IN PAIR OF EXHIBITION GAMES ON JULY 21 & 22

RED SOX TO HOST BLUE JAYS IN PAIR OF
EXHIBITION GAMES ON JULY 21 & 22
Two-Game Set with Toronto Will Conclude Red Sox Summer Camp

BOSTON, MA – The Boston Red Sox today announced that they will host a pair of exhibition games against the Toronto Blue Jays at Fenway Park on Tuesday, July 21 and Wednesday, July 22.

The first pitch for both games is slated for 7:30 p.m. The games will be televised by NESN and carried on WEEI 93.7 FM.

These will be the only two exhibition contests for the Red Sox. The club opens its regular season schedule at Fenway Park on Friday, July 24 against the Baltimore Orioles at 7:30 p.m.

MAYOR WALSH ANNOUNCES START OF IN-PERSON SUMMER YOUTH PROGRAMMING FOR BOSTON CENTERS FOR YOUTH & FAMILIES

MAYOR WALSH ANNOUNCES START OF IN-PERSON SUMMER YOUTH PROGRAMMING FOR BOSTON CENTERS FOR YOUTH & FAMILIES
All programming will be operated in accordance with public health guidelines

Mayor Walsh emphasize the importance of wearing a mask.
BOSTON - Friday, July 10, 2020 - Mayor Martin J. Walsh and Boston Centers for Youth & Families (BCYF) today announced that online registration has opened for City-operated summer youth programs and classes, all of which are designed and will be operated in accordance with current public health guidelines. All BCYF community centers have been closed for in-person programming and recreation due to the COVID-19 public health emergency, with the exception of select locations that have served as meal sites only. Some summer teen programs were transitioned to be offered virtually. 

"It is very important that our youth in every neighborhood can continue to have access to programming this summer as many families rely on them," said Mayor Walsh. "BCYF has worked hard to create a menu of recreational activities at each center, both virtual and in-person, that will offer youth a variety of fun and enriching opportunities."

Programming for Boston youth ages 7 and above is available for registration now at Boston.gov/BCYF-Summer. The free programs will be held both remotely and in person at BCYF community centers across the city. A wide variety of options are available, including arts and computer activities, recreational programs, virtual field trips, workshops, and more. At this time, BCYF centers and indoor pools will be available only for youth during registered in-person summer programming, following public health guidelines. 

"While this summer will certainly be different, we are committed to providing safe, healthy, and engaging summer activities for our youth," said William Morales, Commissioner of Boston Centers for Youth & Families. "We are carefully reviewing programming guidelines as they are released and updated and all of our summer programs were designed and will be operated in accordance with current public health guidelines. We can't wait to see your children in our buildings--and virtually." 

Parents will be able to search for one-time classes or on-going programs where they can then narrow down their search by community center, age group, category, and more. As more programs and activities are finalized they will be added to the website and available for registration. 

Overnight camps will not be permitted until Summer 2021 due to State regulations during the current COVID-19 public health crisis. For current summer day programs there can be no field trips, activities are restricted, enrollment is restricted, volunteers are not allowed, visitors are not allowed, no outside groups can come to centers and very strict cleaning and sanitation guidelines need to be followed. 

These programs are in addition to a variety of expanded BCYF programming for teens which began on Monday, July 6 and includes over 600 youth jobs through the Mayor's Summer Jobs Program. Job applications are still available for youth between the ages of 15 and 24 in the City of Boston.

BCYF community centers will also continue to distribute meals to youth throughout the summer as part of the Boston Summer Eats program. The complete list of meal locations can be found here.  

Thursday, July 09, 2020

Authright杯麻州圍棋賽7/19及7/26日網上舉行

(Boston Orange)Authright公司贊助的Authright杯麻州圍棋賽訂2020719日、26日在網路上(https://www.gokgs.com/)KGS,分6組舉行,限麻州居民參加,每位棋手只能參加一組比賽,優勝者可獲得30元至100元不等的獎金。
報名可上網https://tinyurl.com/authright,報名費$9.99
6類組別及獎金如下:
公開組(分先):冠軍$300、亞軍$200、季軍$150、殿軍$100
1-3段組(分先):冠軍$100、亞軍$50、季軍$30
1-9級組(讓子棋):前三名頒發獎杯
10級或更低(讓子棋):前三名頒發獎狀
青年組(分先,18歲以下,20017月後出生):冠軍$100、亞軍$50、季軍$30
少年組(分先,12歲以下,20077月後出生):冠軍$100、亞軍$50、季軍$30
            查詢詳情可洽Go.KeLu@gmail.com,或電話: 781-296-7519

麻省理工學院研發出類N95新口罩 易消毒 可重複用

MIT研發的可重複使用,具N95功效的新口罩。(來自MIT新聞網站)

(Boston Orange整理報導)麻省理工學院(MIT)新聞今日發表文章,報導該校和布里吉罕及婦女醫院(Brigham and Women’s Hospita)的研究人員,已設計出一種矽膠製新口罩,在防止病毒分子侵入上,和N95口罩一樣有效,而且消毒容易,可重複使用。
在美國新型冠狀病毒(COVID-19)確診個案持續增長之際,醫護等等人員仍然迫切需要N95面罩。MIT這新面罩的材料是很耐用的矽膠,可以用世界各地工廠廣泛使用的模型注射方式製造。這口罩包括一層N95的過濾層,但和傳統的N95口罩相比,需要的N95材料少得多。
MIT表示,這種矽膠是烤盤和其他一些產品都會用到的材料。
MIT機械工程系助理教授兼布里吉罕婦女醫院腸胃科醫師Giovanni Traverso表示,我們很早就確認的其中一個關鍵是,為了因應需求,我們必須嚴格限制自己找能夠大規模生產的方法。我們想要最大化系統的可重複使用姓,我們也想要有能夠以很多種不同方式消毒的系統。
研究團隊現正根據醫護人員回饋,研究製作第二版本,並計畫成立公司來支持生產,爭取FDA,以及全國職業安全及健康研究院(NIOSH)批准。
Giovanni Traverso是今日在英國醫學雜誌(British Medical Journal Open)發表的這篇文章上的資深作者,這一研究的其他主要作者包括布里吉罕婦女醫院的放射腫瘤學家James Byrne,研究工程師Adam Wentworth,急診醫學醫師Peter Chai,研究員Hen-Wei Huang。他們也都是MIT Koch研究院的研究員。

前波士頓僑教中心主任黃海龍辭世

黄海龍湖北武昌人氏。為黄山谷公之後裔,至相鳯貴公移居湖北大冶靈峰鄉棲儒堡草王嘴黄家新莊。

海龍於中華民國109年7月1日喜樂劃下人生休止符,安祥辭世。其一生愛國愛友愛家,刻苦自勵、敬業奉獻而又絢麗豐富多彩。

身後遵囑不發訃文、不公祭暨婉謝弔慰。今已安厝汐止五指山國軍公墓忠靈殿長眠。

海龍特别交待要感謝師長、同學及親朋好友們長期以来的關懷與愛䕶。

再次感谢大家!
並祝福大家平安 喜樂 健康!

全體家屬   鞠躬

中華民國109、7、9

哈佛、MIT、東北等至少5所大學要告ICE、DHS


               (Boston Orange 周菊子正理報導)哈佛,MIT之後,東北大學,康乃爾大學,加州大學陸續加入抗告行列,要求禁制執行移民局(ICE)76日發出修改令,要求所有課程只能在網上學習的國際學生離開美國。該修改令可能影響約40萬名刻在美國進修的國際學生。
               波士頓環球報指出,持用學習簽證的國際學生,麻州約有77,000人,新英格蘭其他各州另有約32,000人。在國際學生人數上,以州來計,麻州排名全美第四,加州全美第一,約185,000。以學校計,東北大學16,000,位居全美第三。
               今日美國(USA Today)指出,在法律訴訟文件上,哈佛大學表示包括研究院的該校23,000名學生中,約有5000人持用F-1簽證,MIT則表示該校11,500學生中,約有4000人持F-1簽證。
               美國移民局在76日週一時,發出通告,說明學生及交換訪問項目(The Student and Exchange Visitor Program)”的臨時修改,內容包括規定持F-1M-1簽證的學生,如果所上學校的所有課程都在網上教授,這些學生將不可留在美國,國務院也不會發簽證給今秋註冊到這些學校上課的學生。如果F-1學生所上學校採取教室和網上授課雙軌制教學,F-1學生可以上一堂課或三個學分以上的網上課,學校必須經由I-20表格證明該課程不是全部在網上教授。
               哈佛大學和麻省理工學院(MIT)78(週三)向位於波士頓的美國地區法院提出告訴,控告美國國土安全局(DHS)和移民局(ICE),申請臨時禁制令,要求美國移民局這一政策暫緩14天。東北大學當日傍晚宣佈,加入提告行列。康乃爾大學,加州大學也都分別表示,抗議ICE這一新規定。
               哈佛及MIT在交給法院的文件中表示,他們依照國土安全局(DHS)三月份發出的通告,准許外籍學生留在美國,也准許新學生今秋入學。
               但是川普政府在76日發出的新規定,卻是如果課程只在網上舉行,外籍學生就必須離開美國,或是轉學到那些面對面授課的學校,否則會面臨被遣返的危險。
               儘管ICE建議國際學生可轉學,以避免被遣返,但ICE在離秋季開學僅數週前採取這一行動,而轉學,入學申請早已截止,在美境內的數以千計國際學生根本別無選擇。然而,許多學生一旦回國,可能因為沒有網路,戰亂,根本無法繼續學業,甚至還有生命危險。
               哈佛早前已宣佈,今秋所有課程將在網上遙距教授,但准許40%的大學本科生,包括所有一年級的新鮮人進入校園。麻省理工學院則在6月份時已表示,大部分課程將在網上教授,只有未特定,數目有限的學生可以進校園。
               根據高等教育紀事報(The Chronicle of Higher Education),約60%的大專院校目前在計畫面對面授課。NAFSA國際教育者協會在四月份的一份調查估計,今秋外籍學生註冊人數會減少,美國高等教育界可能損失30億美元。
               哈佛大學校長鮑考(Lawrence Bacow)在宣佈提告的聲明中表示,ICE的命令是出人意外的殘酷又草率,顯然是設計來逼迫大學院校今秋重新開放校園,面對面授課,卻完全不考慮學生,教員及其他人的健康與安全。
               Business Insider表示,東北大學,加州大學都在78日宣佈加入哈佛和MIT的提告行列。東北大學校長Joseph Aoun表示,國體安全局的新規定在國際學生間製造了混亂,結果將弱化美國的高等教育。加州大學校長Janet Napolitano稱該規定刻薄,獨斷,對美國有害,將控告聯邦政府侵犯了大學及其學生的權利。WENY News78日傍晚報導,康乃爾大學也將加入控訴行動,該校和其他大學稱ICE在病毒大流行期間執行這一行動,將使學校不可能既保障學生的安全,同時又支持他們。
               川普總統週三在推特上表示對疾病防治中心(CDC)制定的學校重新開放指導原則不滿,稱那非常難且昂貴,還威脅如國學校下學期不重新開門,就要扣押學校經費。

Wednesday, July 08, 2020

Mayor Koch Announces Opening of New Kincaide Park


Mayor Koch Announces Opening of New Kincaide Park
July 8, 2020
QUINCY - Mayor Thomas Koch is set to open the newly-renovated Kincaide Park on Water Street in Southwest Quincy. The City invested more than $5.7 million in improving the park’s recreational elements and creating a five-acre rain garden to help deal with localized flooding issues. A new synthetic turf soccer field is the centerpiece of the project, surrounded by a walking track, fitness equipment, a spray-ground, two and half basketball courts, a sprinting track, a children’s playground, 140 new trees, and more than 1,100 new plants.
“This investment should significantly enhance the quality of life in this neighborhood and for our entire city,” said Mayor Koch. “Health and wellness are major issues in today’s society and every neighborhood deserves access to public facilities that promote health and wellness. This new park provides a wide range of recreational opportunities for people of all ages, interests, and abilities.”
The park was designed by Bishop Land Design and local landscape architect Scott Bishop after months of community meetings and input. The contractor that won the competitive bid process was also a Quincy outfit, Fleming Bros. Construction.
Added Koch, “I want to thank Councilor Brian Palmucci for his leadership on this project. I also want to thank the City Councilors that supported this project and our other ongoing investments in the quality of life in our great city. Working together, we are accomplishing great things for all the people of Quincy.”
Kincaide Park sits across Roberts Street from the brand-new Southwest Middle School. It is directly across Water Street from the Lincoln-Hancock Elementary School. The City has invested significantly in this neighborhood over the past four years.
The City received a $400,000 State PARC grant to help with the project. The PARC grant focused on the creative ways to introduce significant new plant materials to help improve the environment and deal with local flooding issues. A wide variety of interesting tree species make up the 140 new trees planted. More than 1,100 plants of varying species will also help absorb ground water with their root systems.
Mayor Koch and Councilor Palmucci will be hosting a small community celebration on Monday, July 13 at 6:30 p.m. to formally open the new park

FBI: The Threat Posed by the Chinese Government and the Chinese Communist Party to the Economic and National Security of the United States

Christopher Wray
Director
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Hudson Institute, Video Event: China’s Attempt to Influence U.S. Institutions
Washington, D.C.
July 7, 2020

The Threat Posed by the Chinese Government and the Chinese Communist Party to the Economic and National Security of the United States

Remarks as delivered.
Good morning. I realize it’s challenging, particularly under the current circumstances, to put on an event like this, so I’m grateful to the Hudson Institute for hosting us today.
The greatest long-term threat to our nation’s information and intellectual property, and to our economic vitality, is the counterintelligence and economic espionage threat from China. It’s a threat to our economic security—and by extension, to our national security.
As National Security Advisor O’Brien said in his recent remarks, we cannot close our eyes and ears to what China is doing—and today, in light of the importance of this threat, I will provide more detail on the Chinese threat than the FBI has ever presented in an open forum. This threat is so significant that the attorney general and secretary of state will also be addressing a lot of these issues in the next few weeks. But if you think these issues are just an intelligence issue, or a government problem, or a nuisance largely just for big corporations who can take care of themselves—you could not be more wrong.
FBI Director Christopher Wray speaks at the Hudson Institute in Washington, D.C. on July 7, 2020, regarding the threat posed by China to U.S. economic and national security.
FBI Director Christopher Wray discusses the threat China poses to U.S. economic and national security during a July 7, 2020 video event at the Hudson Institute in Washington, D.C.
It’s the people of the United States who are the victims of what amounts to Chinese theft on a scale so massive that it represents one of the largest transfers of wealth in human history.
If you are an American adult, it is more likely than not that China has stolen your personal data.
In 2017, the Chinese military conspired to hack Equifax and made off with the sensitive personal information of 150 million Americans—we’re talking nearly half of the American population and most American adults—and as I’ll discuss in a few moments, this was hardly a standalone incident.
Our data isn’t the only thing at stake here—so are our health, our livelihoods, and our security.
We’ve now reached the point where the FBI is opening a new China-related counterintelligence case about every 10 hours. Of the nearly 5,000 active FBI counterintelligence cases currently underway across the country, almost half are related to China. And at this very moment, China is working to compromise American health care organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and academic institutions conducting essential COVID-19 research.
But before I go on, let me be clear: This is not about the Chinese people, and it’s certainly not about Chinese Americans. Every year, the United States welcomes more than 100,000 Chinese students and researchers into this country. For generations, people have journeyed from China to the United States to secure the blessings of liberty for themselves and their families—and our society is better for their contributions. So, when I speak of the threat from China, I mean the government of China and the Chinese Communist Party.

The Chinese Regime and the Scope of Its Ambitions

To understand this threat and how we must act to respond to it, the American people should remember three things.
First: We need to be clear-eyed about the scope of the Chinese government’s ambition. China—the Chinese Communist Party—believes it is in a generational fight to surpass our country in economic and technological leadership.
That is sobering enough. But it’s waging this fight not through legitimate innovation, not through fair and lawful competition, and not by giving their citizens the freedom of thought and speech and creativity that we treasure here in the United States. Instead, China is engaged in a whole-of-state effort to become the world’s only superpower by any means necessary.

A Diverse and Multi-Layered Approach

The second thing the American people need to understand is that China uses a diverse range of sophisticated techniques—everything from cyber intrusions to corrupting trusted insiders. They’ve even engaged in outright physical theft. And they’ve pioneered an expansive approach to stealing innovation through a wide range of actors—including not just Chinese intelligence services but state-owned enterprises, ostensibly private companies, certain kinds of graduate students and researchers, and a whole variety of other actors working on their behalf.

Economic Espionage

To achieve its goals and surpass America, China recognizes it needs to make leaps in cutting-edge technologies. But the sad fact is that instead of engaging in the hard slog of innovation, China often steals American intellectual property and then uses it to compete against the very American companies it victimized—in effect, cheating twice over. They’re targeting research on everything from military equipment to wind turbines to rice and corn seeds.
Through its talent recruitment programs, like the so-called Thousand Talents Program, the Chinese government tries to entice scientists to secretly bring our knowledge and innovation back to China—even if that means stealing proprietary information or violating our export controls and conflict-of-interest rules.
Take the case of scientist Hongjin Tan, for example, a Chinese national and American lawful permanent resident. He applied to China’s Thousand Talents Program and stole more than $1 billion—that’s with a “b”—worth of trade secrets from his former employer, an Oklahoma-based petroleum company, and got caught. A few months ago, he was convicted and sent to prison.
Or there’s the case of Shan Shi, a Texas-based scientist, also sentenced to prison earlier this year. Shi stole trade secrets regarding syntactic foam, an important naval technology used in submarines. Shi, too, had applied to China’s Thousand Talents Program, and specifically pledged to “digest” and “absorb” the relevant technology in the United States. He did this on behalf of Chinese state-owned enterprises, which ultimately planned to put the American company out of business and take over the market.
In one of the more galling and egregious aspects of the scheme, the conspirators actually patented in China the very manufacturing process they’d stolen, and then offered their victim American company a joint venture using its own stolen technology. We’re talking about an American company that spent years and millions of dollars developing that technology, and China couldn’t replicate it—so, instead, it paid to have it stolen.
And just two weeks ago, Hao Zhang was convicted of economic espionage, theft of trade secrets, and conspiracy for stealing proprietary information about wireless devices from two U.S. companies. One of those companies had spent over 20 years developing the technology Zhang stole.
These cases were among more than a thousand investigations the FBI has into China’s actual and attempted theft of American technology—which is to say nothing of over a thousand more ongoing counterintelligence investigations of other kinds related to China. We’re conducting these kinds of investigations in all 56 of our field offices. And over the past decade, we’ve seen economic espionage cases with a link to China increase by approximately 1,300 percent.
The stakes could not be higher, and the potential economic harm to American businesses and the economy as a whole almost defies calculation.

Clandestine Efforts

As National Security Advisor O’Brien discussed in his June remarks, the Chinese government is also making liberal use of hacking to steal our corporate and personal data—and they’re using both military and non-state hackers to do it. The Equifax intrusion I mentioned just a few moments ago, which led to the indictment of Chinese military personnel, was hardly the only time China stole the sensitive personal information of huge numbers of the American public.
For example, did any of you have health insurance through Anthem or one of its associated insurers? In 2015, China’s hackers stole the personal data of 80 million of that company’s current and former customers.
Or maybe you’re a federal employee—or you used to be one, or you applied for a government job once, or a family member or roommate did. Well, in 2014, China’s hackers stole more than 21 million records from OPM, the federal government’s Office of Personnel Management.
Why are they doing this? First, China has made becoming an artificial intelligence world leader a priority, and these kinds of thefts feed right into China’s development of artificial intelligence tools.
Compounding the threat, the data China stole is of obvious value as they attempt to identify people for secret intelligence gathering. On that front, China is using social media platforms—the same ones Americans use to stay connected or find jobs—to identify people with access to our government’s sensitive information and then target those people to try to steal it.
Just to pick one example, a Chinese intelligence officer posing as a headhunter on a popular social media platform recently offered an American citizen a sizeable sum of money in exchange for so-called “consulting” services. That sounds benign enough until you realize those “consulting” services were related to sensitive information the American target had access to as a U.S. military intelligence specialist.
Now that particular tale has a happy ending: The American citizen did the right thing and reported the suspicious contact, and the FBI, working together with our armed forces, took it from there. I wish I could say that all such incidents ended that way.

Threats to Academia

It’s a troublingly similar story in academia.
Through talent recruitment programs like the Thousand Talents Program I mentioned just a few moments ago, China pays scientists at American universities to secretly bring our knowledge and innovation back to China—including valuable, federally funded research. To put it bluntly, this means American taxpayers are effectively footing the bill for China’s own technological development. China then leverages its ill-gotten gains to undercut U.S. research institutions and companies, blunting our nation’s advancement and costing American jobs. And we are seeing more and more of these cases.
In May alone, we arrested both Qing Wang, a former researcher with the Cleveland Clinic who worked on molecular medicine and the genetics of cardiovascular disease, and Simon Saw-Teong Ang, a University of Arkansas scientist doing research for NASA. Both of these guys were allegedly committing fraud by concealing their participation in Chinese talent recruitment programs while accepting millions of dollars in American federal grant funding.
That same month, former Emory University professor Xiao-Jiang Li pled guilty to filing a false tax return for failing to report the income he’d received through China’s Thousand Talents Program. Our investigation found that while Li was researching Huntington’s disease at Emory, he was also pocketing half a million unreported dollars from China.
In a similar vein, Charles Lieber, chair of Harvard’s Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, was indicted just last month for making false statements to federal authorities about his Thousand Talents participation. The United States has alleged that Lieber concealed from both Harvard and the NIH his position as a strategic scientist at a Chinese university—and the fact that the Chinese government was paying him, through the Wuhan Institute of Technology, a $50,000 monthly stipend, more than $150,000 in living expenses, and more than $1.5 million to establish a laboratory back in China.

Malign Foreign Influence

There’s more. Another tool China and the Chinese Communist Party use to manipulate Americans is what we call malign foreign influence.
Now, traditional foreign influence is a normal, legal diplomatic activity typically conducted through diplomatic channels. But malign foreign influence efforts are subversive, undeclared, criminal, or coercive attempts to sway our government’s policies, distort our country’s public discourse, and undermine confidence in our democratic processes and values.
China is engaged in a highly sophisticated malign foreign influence campaign, and its methods include bribery, blackmail, and covert deals. Chinese diplomats also use both open, naked economic pressure and seemingly independent middlemen to push China’s preferences on American officials.
Just take one all-too-common illustration: Let’s say China gets wind that some American official is planning to travel to Taiwan—think a governor, a state senator, a member of Congress. China does not want that to happen, because that travel might appear to legitimize Taiwanese independence from China—and legitimizing Taiwan would, of course, be contrary to China’s “One China” policy.
So what does China do? Well, China has leverage over the American official’s constituents—American companies, academics, and members of the media all have legitimate and understandable reasons to want access to Chinese partners and markets. And because of the authoritarian nature of the Chinese Communist Party, China has immense power over those same partners and markets. So, China will sometimes start by trying to influence the American official overtly and directly. China might openly warn that if the American official goes ahead and takes that trip to Taiwan, China will take it out on a company from that official’s home state by withholding the company’s license to manufacture in China. That could be economically ruinous for the company, would directly pressure the American official to alter his travel plans, and the official would know that China was trying to influence him.
That would be bad enough. But the Chinese Communist Party often doesn’t stop there; it can’t stop there if it wants to stay in power—so it uses its leverage even more perniciously. If China’s more direct, overt influence campaign doesn’t do the trick, they sometimes turn to indirect, covert, deceptive influence efforts.
To continue with the illustration of the American official with travel plans that the Chinese Communist Party doesn’t like, China will work relentlessly to identify the people closest to that official—the people that official trusts most. China will then work to influence those people to act on China’s behalf as middlemen to influence the official. The co-opted middlemen may then whisper in the official’s ear and try to sway the official’s travel plans or public positions on Chinese policy. These intermediaries, of course, aren’t telling the American official that they’re Chinese Communist Party pawns—and worse still, some of these intermediaries may not even realize they’re being used as pawns, because they, too, have been deceived.
Ultimately, China doesn’t hesitate to use smoke, mirrors, and misdirection to influence Americans.
Similarly, China often pushes academics and journalists to self-censor if they want to travel into China. And we’ve seen the Chinese Communist Party pressure American media and sporting giants to ignore or suppress criticism of China’s ambitions regarding Hong Kong or Taiwan. This kind of thing is happening over and over, across the United States.
And I will note that the pandemic has unfortunately not stopped any of this—in fact, we have heard from federal, state, and even local officials that Chinese diplomats are aggressively urging support for China’s handling of the COVID-19 crisis. Yes, this is happening at both the federal and state levels. Not that long ago, we had a state senator who was recently even asked to introduce a resolution supporting China’s response to the pandemic.
The punchline is this: All of these seemingly inconsequential pressures add up to a policymaking environment in which Americans find themselves held over a barrel by the Chinese Communist Party.

Threats to the Rule of Law

All the while, China’s government and Communist Party have brazenly violated well-settled norms and the rule of law.
Since 2014, Chinese General Secretary Xi Jinping has spearheaded a program known as “Fox Hunt.” Now, China describes Fox Hunt as some kind of international anti-corruption campaign—it is not. Instead, Fox Hunt is a sweeping bid by General Secretary Xi to target Chinese nationals whom he sees as threats and who live outside China, across the world. We’re talking about political rivals, dissidents, and critics seeking to expose China’s extensive human rights violations.
Hundreds of the Fox Hunt victims that they target live right here in the United States, and many are American citizens or green card holders. The Chinese government wants to force them to return to China, and China’s tactics to accomplish that are shocking. For example, when it couldn’t locate one Fox Hunt target, the Chinese government sent an emissary to visit the target’s family here in the United States. The message they said to pass on? The target had two options: return to China promptly, or commit suicide. And what happens when Fox Hunt targets refuse to return to China? In the past, their family members both here in the United States and in China have been threatened and coerced, and those back in China have even been arrested for leverage.
I’ll take this opportunity to note that if you believe the Chinese government is targeting you—that you’re a potential Fox Hunt victim—please reach out to your local FBI field office.

Exploiting Our Openness

Understanding how a nation could engage in these tactics brings me to the third thing the American people need to remember: that China has a fundamentally different system than ours—and it’s doing all it can to exploit the openness of ours while taking advantage of its own closed system.
Many of the distinctions that mean a lot here in the United States are blurry or almost nonexistent in China—I'm talking about distinctions between the government and the Chinese Communist Party, between the civilian and military sectors, and between the state and the “private” sector.
For one thing, an awful lot of large Chinese businesses are state-owned enterprises—literally owned by the government, and thus the Party. And even if they aren’t, China’s laws allow its government to compel any Chinese company to provide any information it requests—including American citizens’ data.
On top of that, Chinese companies of any real size are legally required to have Communist Party “cells” inside them to keep them in line. Even more alarmingly, Communist Party cells have reportedly been established in some American companies operating in China as a cost of doing business there.
These kinds of features should give U.S. companies pause when they consider working with Chinese corporations like Huawei—and should give all Americans pause, too, when relying on such a company’s devices and networks. As the world’s largest telecommunications equipment manufacturer, Huawei has broad access to much that American companies do in China. It’s also been charged in the United States with racketeering conspiracy and has, as alleged in the indictment, repeatedly stolen intellectual property from U.S. companies, obstructed justice, and lied to the U.S. government and its commercial partners, including banks.
The allegations are clear: Huawei is a serial intellectual property thief, with a pattern and practice of disregarding both the rule of law and the rights of its victims. I have to tell you, it certainly caught my attention to read a recent article describing the words of Huawei’s founder, Ren Zhengfei, about the company’s mindset. At a Huawei research and development center, he reportedly told employees that to ensure the company’s survival, they need to—and I quote—“surge forward, killing as you go, to blaze us a trail of blood.” He’s also reportedly told employees that Huawei has entered, to quote, “a state of war.” I certainly hope he couldn’t have meant that literally, but it’s hardly an encouraging tone, given the company’s repeated criminal behavior.
In our modern world, there is perhaps no more ominous prospect than a hostile foreign government’s ability to compromise our country’s infrastructure and devices. If Chinese companies like Huawei are given unfettered access to our telecommunications infrastructure, they could collect any of your information that traverses their devices or networks. Worse still: They’d have no choice but to hand it over to the Chinese government if asked—the privacy and due process protections that are sacrosanct in the United States are simply non-existent in China.

Responding Effectively to the Threat

The Chinese government is engaged in a broad, diverse campaign of theft and malign influence, and it can execute that campaign with authoritarian efficiency. They’re calculating. They’re persistent. They’re patient. And they’re not subject to the righteous constraints of an open, democratic society or the rule of law.
China, as led by the Chinese Communist Party, is going to continue to try to misappropriate our ideas, influence our policymakers, manipulate our public opinion, and steal our data. They will use an all-tools and all-sectors approach—and that demands our own all-tools and all-sectors approach in response.
Our folks at the FBI are working their tails off every day to protect our nation’s companies, our universities, our computer networks, and our ideas and innovation. To do that, we’re using a broad set of techniques—from our traditional law enforcement authorities to our intelligence capabilities.
And I will briefly note that we’re having real success. With the help of our many foreign partners, we’ve arrested targets all over the globe. Our investigations and the resulting prosecutions have exposed the tradecraft and techniques the Chinese use, raising awareness of the threat and our industries’ defenses. They also show our resolve and our ability to attribute these crimes to those responsible. It’s one thing to make assertions—but in our justice system, when a person, or a corporation, is investigated and then charged with a crime, we have to prove the truth of the allegation beyond a reasonable doubt. The truth matters—and so, these criminal indictments matter. And we’ve seen how our criminal indictments have rallied other nations to our cause—which is crucial to persuading the Chinese government to change its behavior.
We’re also working more closely than ever with partner agencies here in the U.S. and our partners abroad. We can’t do it on our own; we need a whole-of-society response. That’s why we in the intelligence and law enforcement communities are working harder than ever to give companies, universities, and the American people themselves the information they need to make their own informed decisions and protect their most valuable assets.
Confronting this threat effectively does not mean we shouldn’t do business with the Chinese. It does not mean we shouldn’t host Chinese visitors. It does not mean we shouldn’t welcome Chinese students or coexist with China on the world stage. But it does mean that when China violates our criminal laws and international norms, we are not going to tolerate it, much less enable it. The FBI and our partners throughout the U.S. government will hold China accountable and protect our nation’s innovation, ideas, and way of life—with the help and vigilance of the American people.
Thank you for having me here today.