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Monday, January 24, 2022

最高法院同意聆訊哈佛大學入學許可族裔考量案

           (Boston Orange 編譯)由保守派主導的最高法院今 (24)日同意聆聽挑戰大學院校入學許可族裔考量的案件。

這使得最高法院在墮胎、槍枝控制、宗教及新冠病毒等議題之外,又多一宗備受矚目的案件。

最高法院表示,將接受聲稱私立的哈佛大學,州立的北卡羅來納 (North Carolina)大學歧視亞裔美籍申請人的案件。最高法院的決定若是反對大學現有作法,可能意味著大學入學許可中平權行動的終結。

兩造辯論預定會在今秋進行。

低等法院以40多年來,高等法院的判決是准許大專院校在入學許可決定上考慮種族因素為由,拒絕了這一挑戰。但大專院校必須以精細制定的方式來推廣多元化。

2016年,最高法院最近在一名白人女性挑戰德州大學的入學許可做法時,以43的投票,支持了德州大學。不過最高法院的人員結構在美國前總統川普 (Donald Trump)新增3名保守派法官之後,有了改變。

由於有4人而成為多數的大法官中,有2人離職了,包括2020年辭世的Ruth Bader Ginsburg法官,以及2018年退休的Anthony Kennedy法官。

在這案件中持不同意見的3名法官,首席法官John Roberts,以及法官Clarence Thomas Samuel Alito,仍然在位。對某些議題有調節作用,對於在公眾項目上限制使用種族堅定不移的Roberts法官曾經寫道,這是很不好 (sordid)的作法,把我們按種族分化了

最高法院已經在聆聽可能擴大槍枝,宗教權力的案件,還可能直接挑戰1973年的Roe v. Wade判決,平反墮胎權,

週四時,最高法院第一次介入美國總統拜登 (Joe Biden)的疫苗政策,制止了大型企業的接種疫苗或檢測規定,同時准許全國大多數醫療護理員工的疫苗規定。

平權行動案件可能會在春季開始辯論。兩宗訴訟都是由Edward Blum所運作的維琴尼亞州團體公平入學許可提出的。他在促使大專院校在做入學許可審核時,廢除族裔考量上,已努力多年,而最高法院的新成員結構,有望為他的努力帶來新氣象。

該團體要求最高法院推翻2003年的Grutter v. Bollinger案的維持密西根大學法律系入學許可項目做法的判決。

拜登政府則力勸法官們遠離這一議題,並在哈佛案件中稱該案的推翻2003年判決的挑戰不能證明這非同尋常的步驟是正確的


As Supreme Court Decides to Hear SFFA v. Harvard and SFFA v. UNC, 

Asian American Civil Rights Orgs Affirm Race-Conscious College Admissions Expand Opportunities for All Students of Color

 

WASHINGTON, D.C. — Asian Americans Advancing Justice, an affiliation of five independent Asian American civil rights organizations, affirms its support for race-conscious college admissions and releases the following statement in response to the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision to hear SFFA v. Harvard and SFFA v. UNC:

 

“Amid a national reckoning with anti-Asian racism, we know that discrimination is not a relic of the past and continues to pervade and distort the lived experiences for people of color in this country every day. Affirmative action, diversity, and anti-discrimination programs, are essential to opening up opportunities for women and people of color, including Asian Americans, in higher education and all aspects of public life, and have been foundational building blocks for a more just and equitable society.  

 

“We still need these programs. The reality is that race continues to unfairly limit educational opportunities for students of color. Even after Brown v. Board of Education, schools in Black and brown communities are too often neglected and K-12 schools are severely segregated by race and ethnicity.

 

“Cold numerical indicators like grade point averages and standardized test scores capture and magnify these inequalities. Contrary to measuring merit, universities have increasingly recognized that standardized test scores are poor predictors of future academic success and have a troubling record of racial bias. In order to fairly assess the meaning of these numerical indicators, we need to consider the whole person, including race and our full life experience, as part of what we bring to any table.

 

Seventy percent of Asian Americans support affirmative action. We reject the use of Asian Americans as proxies to attack the constitutionality of race-conscious programs. Race-conscious programs should not be conflated with racial quotas or other forms of unlawful discrimination. As we stand against anti-Asian racism and all forms of white supremacy, we are united with other civil rights advocates and students of color against further exclusion and segregation and for an education system in which all students have opportunities to learn, grow, and thrive.”

 

Background: Advancing Justice Affiliation Support for Race-Conscious Admissions

In 2020, Asian Americans Advancing Justice-AAJC on behalf of the Advancing Justice affiliation, the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, Lawyers For Civil Rights and pro bono counsel Arnold & Porter filed an amicus brief to the First Circuit on behalf of a group of Asian Americans and other students of color at Harvard who support race-conscious admissions. In their testimony before the U.S. District Court of Massachusetts, represented by Advancing Justice-Los Angeles and other co-counsel, these same students shared how consideration of race safeguards against discrimination and ensures candidates’ full life experience can be shared and recognized. 

 

In California, Advancing Justice - Asian Law Caucus and Advancing Justice - LA have joined with civil rights organizations and communities to repeal Proposition 209, which has prevented equal opportunity in state contracting, hiring and education and has led to the resegregation of campuses and workplaces across the state. 

 

About Asian Americans Advancing Justice

Asian Americans Advancing Justice is a national affiliation of five leading organizations advocating for the civil and human rights of Asian Americans and other underserved communities to promote a fair and equitable society for all. The affiliation's members are: Advancing Justice - AAJC (Washington, DC), Advancing Justice - Asian Law Caucus (San Francisco), Advancing Justice - Los Angeles, Advancing Justice - Atlanta, and Advancing Justice - Chicago.

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